How to show all installed packages with pacman

Query the pacman package manager on systems like Arch to show installed packages.


Querying pacman

How to show all installed packages on Ubuntu

Query the package manager to show installed packages on Ubuntu systems including version details.


Query tools like dpkg to show installed packages

Package manager: Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently asked questions about software, such as package manager, package versions, and how to configure them.


List installed packages on a Linux system

Learn how to show all installed packages on Linux systems including AlmaLinux, Debian, OpenSUSE, and Ubuntu.


Show installed package on the most common Linux distributions

Package manager

Everything related to package managers like apt, dnf, yum, and zypper. Learn how to use the tools to install and configure packages.



Everything related to software, including package managers, building software packages, and more.


Show vulnerable packages on Arch Linux with arch-audit

With the right tool, arch-audit in this case, we can find any vulnerable package that is installed on a Arch Linux system. Learn how it works.


Vulnerabilities happen and are usually fairly quickly fixed. This is also true for Arch Linux. This rolling distribution can be considered to be always up-to-date, as it uses the latest versions of software packages from the upstream. When there is an update, it doesn’t take long that it becomes available and can be installed with package manager pacman. One problem that remained was the inability to quickly test if you have any vulnerable packages.

Find and Disable Insecure Services on Linux

Learn how to find and disable those services on Linux that are nowadays are considered to be unsafe or known for the weak security.


The world has changed a lot in the last era, especially when it comes to computing. This applies also to the services we run on our Linux systems. Some of these services (like rlogin), were previously the defacto tools to do administration. Now they are considered to be bad and insecure. What makes a service insecure? Services can become insecure when they have characteristics like: No (or weak) authentication No (or weak) encryption Insecure protocols Running as root Authentication insecurities One example might be if a program only requires a password or pin, without any information like an username.

Missing Packages: Don’t Trust External Repositories!

Should you external repositories or not? In this article we look at why trusting external repositories might be a bad thing.


If you are in the business of system administration, you know the big dilemma when it comes to installing software: missing packages. Yes, a lot of packages are available in the repositories of your Linux distribution, but not the one you need. Or when it is, it is horribly outdated. So you reach out to external resources, like community maintained repositories, right? With Lynis, we face this same issue. While most of the distributions have Lynis in the repository, it is often outdated.

Updating all OpenBSD packages with pkg_add

To ensure your system is secure and stable, package management is an important task. To achieve that, use pkg_add to update your installed OpenBSD packages.


Using pkg_add Keeping your systems stable and secure Every system needs to stay up-to-date with its packages, including OpenBSD. Most OpenBSD users already use pkg_add for the installation of packages. This utility can also be used for package upgrades. Option 1: Use /etc/installurl Newer OpenBSD versions use the file /etc/installurl to select the mirror for pkg_add. Option 2: PKG_PATH The first thing to do is defining your PKG_PATH. This will usually be the address of a FTP or HTTP server, which has the latest packages available.

Software Patch Management for Maximum Linux Security

Linux systems have a lot of software packages, resulting in regular upgrades and updates. Proper software patch management is key and we share how to do it.


Maximum Linux security with proper software patch management Software upgrades are almost as old as the first lines of software code. Still companies struggle to properly update software, also when it comes to security patching. In this article we have a look at the reason behind patching and some methods to keep your systems humming, with fresh packages. Why Update? To most of us, it instantly makes sense to keep the software on your systems up-to-date.

Vulnerabilities and Digital Signatures for OpenBSD Software Packages

When coming across an OpenBSD system, one can not ignore auditing the OpenBSD software packages and its configuration. Learn more what OpenBSD has to offer.


If you audit systems on a regular basis, you eventually will come across an OpenBSD system. OpenBSD is known for its heavy focus on security, resulting in an operating system with a low footprint and well-audited source code. While most operating systems are pretty secure, they quickly will introduce new security holes when installing external software components. Although OpenBSD does careful checks for packages they add, those might be containing still a vulnerability, waiting to be discovered.

How to solve Shellshock on Debian and Ubuntu

Also Debian and Ubuntu are vulnerable for Shellshock vulnerability in Bash. That's why it is important to run apt update and perform an upgrade of Bash.


Protect against Shellshock Shellshock is a serious software weakness, or vulnerability, in Bash. This shell is used on almost all Unix based systems, including Debian and Ubuntu. As it can be used without much effort and remotely exploit systems, it has a maximum vulnerability score according to CVSS. Upgrade Bash First update the software repository with apt-get, using the update parameter. apt-get update && apt-get install -only-upgrade bash Your system should now have a newer version of bash.

Are security hardening guides still useful?

With Linux being decently hardened by default, would it make sense to invest in reading hardening guides? The short answer: yes!


This was the big question we asked ourselves recently, when reading a few of them. With Linux and other Unix systems being decently hardened by default, would it still make sense to invest a lot of time to harden your system? Hardening guides Years ago both Windows and Linux were easy targets. A lot of system software was installed by default and these services were targeted often by malicious people and scripts.

Difference between Lynis and Lynis Enterprise

Quick guide about the differences between Lynis and the Lynis Enterprise Suite and what version is best suitable for your Linux or Unix environment.


People wonder about the main differences between Lynis and the Lynis Enterprise version. In this article we have a look on what both products are and how you can choose between the two. Lynis Lynis is a security auditing tool for Linux and Unix based systems. With its GPLv3 license it’s open source and freely available. The tool was first released in 2007 and has undergone a lot of development during the years.

Auditing Linux: Software Packages and Managers

Article about how to audit and check installed software packages and their security by using the related package managers.


No system can do its job without any installed software packages. However after installation of the system, or running it for a while, it often becomes unclear why some software was ever installed. This article looks at methods on auditing installed software, check for security updates and the related follow-up. Package managers To enable system administrators to properly manage software and upgrading them, Linux uses a package manager. This suite often consists of a package database, the software packages itself and several support tools.