File Integrity

File Integrity of Password Files

Proper password management, together with file integrity of your password files, is important for security of your system and users.


Password files on Linux are used to store user details, like your unique user ID and name. It defines who you are on the system, your access to files, and the permissions you have. Proper password management, together with file integrity of your password files, is important. It keeps your system and user accounts safe. Password Files For most Linux distributions there are two related files available: /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow. The first file defines what local users are available on the system.

Security Defenses to Fortify your Linux Systems

Your Linux systems should be protected against common security attacks. By using 4 common techniques, we can fortify our systems like a real fortress.


Create a Linux security fortress; implementing security defenses using towers, bridges, and guards. Still many companies have difficulties implementing basic security measures. Even after years of websites being defaced, and customer records stolen, the same mistakes are made over and over again. While this all might sound like an unsolvable situation, information security is getting attention from more people. If you are responsible for the system management of Linux systems, ignoring security is no longer an option.

Linux System Integrity: Ensure Data, Logging and Kernel Integrity

Linux system integrity can be achieved with security measures which focus on kernel integrity, file integrity and hardware integrity.


From Data and Logging, up to Kernel Integrity Systems exist for one primary goal, which is processing data. Information security helps protecting this valuable data, by ensuring its availability, integrity, and confidentiality. In other words, data should be available when we need it. Then it should be properly transmitted and stored, without errors. Our last goal ensures that it is only available to those with a need to know. Many open source software components are available to help with these goals.

Monitoring Linux File access, Changes and Data Modifications

Linux has several methods available to protect your valuable data. With the right tool we can audit file access, including changes.


Linux has several solutions to monitor what happens with your data. From changing contents to who accessed particular information, and at what time. For our auditing toolkit Lynis, we researched and tested several solutions over the last few years. In this article we have a look at these solutions to monitor file access, changes and modifications to the data and beyond. What is Data? Data is a collection of bits, ordered in such a way it gives meaning to humans.

Monitor for File System Changes on Linux

Protecting against file system changes is an important step in keeping your systems secure. Prevention is important, but detection might be more valuable!


The most important areas with information security are preventing some events from occurring and detecting it if something still happens. Unfortunately most companies forget to put enough effort in detection unauthorized activities. In this article we have a special look at monitoring your file system, to detect changes to your critical system files and their configuration files. Method 1: File Integrity tools The first method is monitoring file changes with the help of specific tools.