Compliance

GDPR Compliance: Technical Requirements for Linux Systems

An insight in the technical aspects and requirements for Linux systems when it comes to compliance with the GDPR, the General Data Protection Regulation.

Summary of GDPR Compliance: Technical Requirements for Linux Systems

What is GDPR? GDPR or General Data Protection Regulation is a regulation to protect personal data from citizens of the European Union (EU). When speaking about stored data, it includes the handling of data at any given time, from the initial creation of the data, until the final deletion of it. One of the important parts is the right to ‘know’. That means that individuals can ask what data is stored about them.

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In-depth Linux Guide to Achieve PCI DSS Compliance and Certification

This is the technical Linux guide you need to achieve compliance with the PCI DSS standard. Become compliant and maintaining it, with Linux tips for configuration and auditing.

Summary of In-depth Linux Guide to Achieve PCI DSS Compliance and Certification

If you work for a company which accepts, processes, or stores credit card details, you might be familiar with the PCI Data Security Standard (DSS). The standard itself is very detailed. Still, it sometimes unclear on what specifically to implement and when. This guide will help with translating the PCI standard to technical security controls on Linux systems. This document has the goal to help you further secure your network and pass the PCI DSS audit.

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Linux server security: Three steps to secure each system

Article about Linux server security and guidance for securing your Linux systems. Focus on auditing, hardening and compliance, to improve security defenses.

Summary of Linux server security: Three steps to secure each system

Determining the level of Linux server security can only by measuring the actual implemented security safeguards. This process is called auditing and focuses on comparing common security measures with the ones implemented. While there is almost no system with all possible safeguards implemented, we still can determine how well (or badly) the system is protected. Security is about finding the weakest link(s) and associate risk with each weakness. Depending on the role of the system, sensitivity of data and possible threats, we can then select what security safeguards are appropriate.

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PCI DSS (v3) for Linux: Auditing application processes (A.1.2.a)

PCI DSS v3 compliance (A.1.2.a) requires you to verify if no application processes are running as root. We audit these application processes and check the status of each.

Summary of PCI DSS (v3) for Linux: Auditing application processes (A.1.2.a)

A.1.2.a Verify the user ID of any application process is not a privileged user (root/admin). For Unix and Linux based systems, processes should run as a non-privileged user where possible. However to be able to start, a process is usually started with root permissions (uid 0). This is required to open the required sockets (e.g. bind to port 80). After the initial start, the process drops its privileges by switching to another user.

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PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Creation and deletion of system-level objects (10.2.7)

The PCI DSS standard defines "Creation and deletion of system-level objects" in control 10.2.7. For Linux systems this might be handled with the Linux audit framework.

Summary of PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Creation and deletion of system-level objects (10.2.7)

Some areas are within the PCI standard are definitely not directly clear when reading the description. Section 10.2.7 is one of them. It talks about the creation and deletion of system-level objects and specifically the ability to log them. System-level objects? The guidance in 10.2.7 speaks about malware and mentions database related items. That does not make auditing very obvious, as malware usually targets binaries. Therefore we have to look first what a system-level object is.

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PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Invalid logical access attempts (10.2.4)

PCI DSS compliance control 10.2.4 mandates to monitor invalid logical access attempts. For Linux we can use the Linux audit framework to monitor for this event.

Summary of PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Invalid logical access attempts (10.2.4)

PCI describes in control 10.2.4 to monitor for “invalid logical access attempts”. Another way of saying to monitor attempts which are not allowed, like accessing a file you are not supposed to. Another indication might be brute force attempts to log in, which result in several failed logins. To monitor for invalid access attempts, we can use the Linux audit framework. This framework has been created and maintained by Red Hat over the years.

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PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Logging of administrative actions with root privileges (10.2.2)

PCI DSS requires logging of administrative actions, including commands executed by the root user or using sudo. Learn how to set up accounting and auditing.

Summary of PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Logging of administrative actions with root privileges (10.2.2)

Companies who need to comply with the PCI DSS standard need to log all actions which are executed by the root user or those accounts with similar administrative privileges. 10.2.2 Verify all actions taken by any individual with root or administrative privileges are logged. The Linux kernel allows the monitoring of executed commands. This monitoring and logging can be done with the Linux audit framework. Using this framework, we can monitor the right system calls and create an audit trail.

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PCI DSS (v3) Linux: No write access to shared system binaries (A.1.2.c)

PCI compliance (A.1.2.c) demands that no write access is allowed to shared system binaries. For this to test we can use several tools to determine if write access is allowed.

Summary of PCI DSS (v3) Linux: No write access to shared system binaries (A.1.2.c)

A.1.2.c Verify that an entity’s users do not have write access to shared system binaries Shared system binaries should be protected, as they form the basis of your system. PCI compliance (A.1.2.c) demands that users do not have write access to shared systems binaries. The only exception is of course the root user, so software upgrades are still possible. Paths for system binaries Depending on the distribution used there are several directories which have shared system binaries.

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PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Restrict log file viewing (A.1.2.d)

Linux users who want to compliant with PCI DSS have to restrict log file viewing to only the owner. We have a look at how to discover log files which can be viewed by others.

Summary of PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Restrict log file viewing (A.1.2.d)

A.1.2.d Verify that viewing of log entries is restricted to the owning entity. To limit exposure to information, PCI DSS requires access of logging to only the entity owning that log file. In other words, we have to search for those entries which can be seen by others. Search related log files By default, most log files on Linux based systems will be stored in /var/log. We can do a quick check for any files which are world readable, by using find.

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SOx compliance and Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room

On of the biggest companies in the US, Enron fell into the trap of fraud. Great lessons might be learned from the documentary, and see why SOx compliance isn't that bad.

Summary of SOx compliance and Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room

If you are involved with Linux security, you might already have come across SOx compliance. Usually from a sysadmins point of view, work doesn’t get easier due to these compliance requirements. Still there are some lessons we can learn, followed by a great documentary to watch about Enron. The Sabanes-Oxley Act, SOx for short, now applies to all companies who like to have their stock exchanged at the New York stock exchange (NYSE).

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