What is SSH agent forwarding?

Learn more about the SSH agent forwarding feature and what problems it tries to resolve.


The agent forwarding feature in SSH allows using your local SSH agent to be reached through an existing SSH connection. This way you don’t have to store copies of your private keys on intermediate systems to use them for authentication. While SSH agent forward simplifies things, it also introduces a new risk related to Unix domain socket. If a user on the intermediate system can access the related socket, then it may abuse this connection back to the SSH agent to authenticate on your behalf.

How to start the SSH agent?

When the SSH agent is not running, how can you start it? In this article we will have a look at the options.


The ssh-agent command is started manually using eval $(ssh-agent). This will initiate the SSH agent and make it available for clients, such as ssh, to use it. To confirm that the agent is running is by looking at the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. Automatic start of SSH agent Gnome Keyring SSH Agent When using Gnome, it typically comes with its SSH agent as part of Keyring. This will automatically load any files in ~/.

What is the purpose of the SSH agent?

What is the purpose of the SSH agent and when to use it?


The ssh-agent command starts the SSH agent, a helper utility to store private keys when using public key authentication. The ssh-agent process is usually started at the the beginning of a login session and then can be connected to by a SSH client. Clients can detect the environment variable named SSH_AUTH_SOCK. Related settings on the client IdentityAgent

How to disable the usage of the SSH agent

Learn how to disable the usage of the SSH agent when authenticating.


Disable usage of SSH agent identities

How to disable the SSH host key check?

Learn how to disable the SSH check of host authenticity and key fingerprint with ssh option StrictHostKeyChecking.


Disable check for host authenticity

How to terminate a SSH connection that does not respond to CTRL+C

Learn about SSH escape sequences and how they can help with terminating a SSH connection that does not respond to CTRL+C.


Use an escape sequence to terminate a connection that is stuck

How to remove the passphrase from a SSH key

Remove the password or passphrase from a SSH key using the ssh-keygen command.


Remove a passphrase from existing SSH key

How to see the available SSH keys in the OpenSSH authentication agent

Show the available SSH keys that are loaded in the SSH authentication agent.


How to see the available SSH keys in the OpenSSH authentication agent

How to test if an account has a password set?

Want to determine if a Linux account has a password set or its related properties? Here are few methods to check this and the steps to perform.


Sometimes you might want to check if an account on the system has a password set. One of the reasons is to disable those, so you can enforce that only SSH authentication might be used, for example. There are a few ways to see if a password is set. Using the passwd command The first command that comes to mind is using the passwd command. Normally you would use that to change your password, but it can actually also reveal useful details about existing accounts.

Locking users after X failed login attempts with pam_tally2

The pam_tally2 module allows system administrators to block accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts. This guide explains how to use it with SSH.


Using pam_tally2 on Linux Most Linux distributions use pluggable authentication modules (PAM). This modular type of configuration allows system administrators to configure and fine-tune the authentication of users. It also defines the behavior on specific events, like providing an invalid user account or password. PAM can use these events to automatically take an action, like locking an account. Introduction to PAM The configuration of PAM is not that hard, but there are risks involved in the process of making changes.

Configure the minimum password length on Linux systems

One of the options to improve password security is by setting a minimum password length. This article explains how to configure and test this security step.


Linux and password strength One of the options to improve password security is by setting a minimum length. This prevents users from choosing easy passwords. As part of Linux system hardening, you don’t want your passwords to be cracked too quickly by modern password crackers. Configuration Let’s have a look at how to configure password security and in particular the length and its strength. Login settings The first area where you can set a password length is in /etc/login.

Find and Disable Insecure Services on Linux

Learn how to find and disable those services on Linux that are nowadays are considered to be unsafe or known for the weak security.


The world has changed a lot in the last era, especially when it comes to computing. This applies also to the services we run on our Linux systems. Some of these services (like rlogin), were previously the defacto tools to do administration. Now they are considered to be bad and insecure. What makes a service insecure? Services can become insecure when they have characteristics like: No (or weak) authentication No (or weak) encryption Insecure protocols Running as root Authentication insecurities One example might be if a program only requires a password or pin, without any information like an username.

Granting temporary access to your servers (using signed SSH keys)

SSH has the capabilities to give a colleague or vendor temporary access to your systems. Learn how to install and configure the related SSH settings.


In need of support from a colleague or vendor, but don’t want to give them permanent access? SSH has an option to allow temporary access! Next time you need to provide temporary access for an hour or day, use this great option. Configuration We have two machines for this purpose. One is a system running Arch Linux, the client system. The other one is a server, running Ubuntu Linux. For temporary support, we have created a functional account support on the Ubuntu server.