Audit SuSE with zypper: vulnerable packages

Audit (Open)SuSE with zypper: vulnerable packages Proper software management is an important part in keeping your system secured. Acting on time is important, especially when network services have discovered security vulnerabilities. Vulnerable packages Usually packages with known security vulnerabilities, get priority and updates are soon available. The risk in installing these packages is fairly low, as they don’t introduce new features. Instead, they fix the related security hole, which sometimes is nothing more than 1 single character! Check your system […]

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Auditing Linux processes: The Deep Dive!

Auditing Linux processes From the initial start of the Linux operating system, the first processes are already born. In this article we have a look on dealing with processes. In particular we look at how to do process auditing. Whenever you are an auditor, system administrator or just a Linux enthusiast, you can’t ignore processes and should know how to deal with them. Process listing For most people working on Linux systems, it might be obvious to display running processes […]

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Linux hardening steps for starters

Most systems have confidential data that needs to be protected. To safeguard this data, we need to secure our Linux system. But how to properly harden a Linux system? In this article, we will cover this step by step. We start by with physical security measures to prevent unauthorized people from access the system in the first place. Next is doing the installation the right way, so we have a solid foundation. Finally, we will apply a set of common […]

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Become a Linux Auditor: What to know?

Linux Auditor: What to know? Now open source software and platforms are very common, the need for knowledge in this area is increasing. Becoming a technical auditor with specialized knowledge about Linux, might be a clever move. Technical When specializing in Linux, the auditing area is already more technically oriented, instead of the processes. A true Linux auditor knows more than the basics of Linux. In-depth knowledge is required, like what file systems are common, how permissions are arranged, popular […]

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Auditing Linux: what to audit?

Auditing Linux: what to audit? In this article we answer the big question on Linux systems “what to audit?”. Where do you start and what is useful to audit? We apply our three C‘s in this article to determine what we should look for when auditing a Linux system. Current state What is the current state of the system and how does it compare to previous time? Ideal situation: compare current state of the system with a predefined baseline or […]

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Become a Linux auditor: tips to start with auditing the Linux platform

Become a Linux auditor: tips to start with auditing the Linux platform This guide helps people new to the Linux platform to get a grasp on how the system works. Whenever you are an IT auditor, or simply want to know more about the basics, this guide helps you in determining where to start an audit. Processes Each operating system consists of smaller running processes. In case of Linux this is true as well and can be displayed with the […]

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Linux server security: Three steps to secure each system

Linux server security: Three steps to secure each system Determining the level of Linux server security can only by measuring the actual implemented security safeguards. This process is called auditing and focuses on comparing common security measures with the ones implemented. While there is almost no system with all possible safeguards implemented, we still can determine how well (or badly) the system is protected. Security is about finding the weakest link(s) and associate risk with each weakness. Depending on the […]

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Linux kernel security and how to improve it

Every system is as strong as its weakest link. In the case of an operating system like Linux, one weakness in the kernel could result in a security breach. This article covers the Linux kernel features and how they work. Kernel features Live kernel patching As the kernel is similar to other software, it receives updates to improve it. Now and then a security weakness is discovered in one of the subsystems of the Linux kernel. This means that Linux […]

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Conducting a Linux Server Security Audit

Conducting a Linux Server Security Audit Auditing a system can be a time-consuming job, which is no different when conducting a Linux server security audit. Within this article, we give some highlights regarding the audit and tips to automate them by using Lynis. The business goal Before auditing any system, determine the business goal of the system. How critical is this system for doing business? What if the system goes down? Usually each system has a clear role or multiple […]

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Open source vulnerability scanner for Linux systems – Lynis

Open source vulnerability scanner for Linux There are several open source vulnerability scanners for Linux, like OpenVAS. While tools like these are powerful as well, we will have a look at Lynis, our auditing tool to detect vulnerabilities of Linux and Unix systems. Why is it different than others and how can it help you in securing your systems? Vulnerabilities Every piece of software will have sooner or later a vulnerability, a minor or major weakness which can be abused […]

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Configuring and auditing Linux systems with Audit daemon

Configuring and auditing Linux systems with Audit daemon The Linux Audit Daemon is a framework to allow auditing events on a Linux system. Within this article we will have a look at installation, configuration and using the framework to perform Linux system and security auditing. Auditing goals By using a powerful audit framework, the system can track many event types to monitor and audit the system. Examples include: Audit file access and modification See who changed a particular file Detect […]

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CAATTs for Linux: Lynis

CAATTs for Linux Within the field of the audit profession the usage of CAAT (Computer-assisted audit techniques) or CAATTs (computer-assisted audit tools and techniques) is growing. Lynis is filling this gap for Linux and Unix based systems. It’s a well-known and stable tool in this area and improves the audit process by automation. Only a few items could then be checked manually. This saves time, makes the audit more predictable and increases the quality of the overall audit. Lynis Based […]

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Antivirus for Linux: is it really needed?

The question regarding the need for antivirus for Linux is after years still relevant. It is asked at forums and shows up regularly at Quora. As the original author of rkhunter, a malware scanner for Linux and Unix systems, I analyzed many malicious software components. You might be wondering that if there is malware, there is also a need for a scanner, right? It is actually not that easy to answer. It depends… So is antivirus on Linux really needed […]

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How to deal with a compromised Linux system

One day your web hoster or yourself may discover that your Linux system is slow. Upon logging in, you see a high load consumed by a suspicious process name or maybe just the Apache web server. Is your system compromised? How do you know it is? Let’s have a look at how to deal with security breaches and incident response. Recognizing a security breach Not all security breaches are directly visible. Attackers may have compromised your system a while ago […]

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Auditing Linux: Software Packages and Managers

Auditing Linux: Software Packages and Managers No system can do its job without any installed software packages. However after installation of the system, or running it for a while, it often becomes unclear why some software was ever installed. This article looks at methods on auditing installed software, check for security updates and the related follow-up. Package managers To enable system administrators to properly manage software and upgrading them, Linux uses a package manager. This suite often consists of a […]

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