PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Logging of administrative actions with root privileges (10.2.2)

PCI DSS: Logging of administrative actions with root privileges Companies who need to comply with the PCI DSS standard need to log all actions which are executed by the root user, or similar administrative privileges. 10.2.2 Verify all actions taken by any individual with root or administrative privileges are logged. The Linux kernel allows to monitor commands. By configuring the Linux audit framework, we can monitor the right system calls and create an audit trail. Configure logging To capture executed […]

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Using Open Source Auditing Tools as Alternative for CIS Benchmarks

Using Open Source Auditing Tools An alternative to CIS Benchmarks and hardening guides Hardening guides, and the CIS benchmarks in particular, are a great resource to check your system for possible weaknesses and conduct system hardening. But who has the time to read it cover to cover, and apply every single step? In this article we have a look at the alternative: open source auditing tools. Time.. Hardening is a time consuming task. As security specialists, we know that. It […]

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PCI DSS (v3) Linux: No write access to shared system binaries (A.1.2.c)

No write access to shared system binaries A.1.2.c Verify that an entity‚Äôs users do not have write access to shared system binaries Shared system binaries should be protected, as they form the basis of your system. PCI compliance (A.1.2.c) demands that users do not have write access to shared systems binaries. The only exception is of course the root user, so software upgrades are still possible. Paths for system binaries Depending on the distribution used there are several directories which […]

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PCI DSS (v3) for Linux: Auditing application processes (A.1.2.a)

PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Auditing application processes (A.1.2.a) A.1.2.a Verify the user ID of any application process is not a privileged user (root/admin). For Unix and Linux based systems, processes should run as a non-privileged user where possible. However to be able to start, a process is usually started with root permissions (uid 0). This is required to open the required sockets (e.g. bind to port 80). After the initial start, the process drops its privileges by switching to another […]

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PCI DSS (v3) Linux: Restrict log file viewing (A.1.2.d)

Restrict log file viewing A.1.2.d Verify that viewing of log entries is restricted to the owning entity. To limit exposure to information, PCI DSS requires access of logging to only the entity owning that log file. In other words, we have to search for those entries which can be seen by others. Search related log files By default, most log files on Linux based systems will be stored in /var/log. We can do a quick check for any files which […]

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Do NOT use Linux hardening checklists for your servers

Do NOT use Linux hardening checklists for your servers Quality is an interesting word. It describes, well, the quality of something. Quality is just another word for how well can you repeat something. The goal is to get each time exactly the same result. Whenever it’s a physical product, or rolling out a new Linux system, you want great quality. One method to increase quality is using checklists. However we strongly advice against using Linux hardening checklists.. But checklists are […]

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Linux server security: Three steps to secure each system

Linux server security: Three steps to secure each system Determining the level of Linux server security can only by measuring the actual implemented security safeguards. This process is called auditing and focuses on comparing common security measures with the ones implemented. While there is almost no system with all possible safeguards implemented, we still can determine how well (or badly) the system is protected. Security is about finding the weakest link(s) and associate risk with each weakness. Depending on the […]

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